Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked enzymopathy that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, conferring increased risk of neonatal jaundice and oxidant-induced hemolytic anemia.
G6PD converts glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphoglyconolactone in the first step of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), this reaction also produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).
NADPH, through subsequent enzymatic reactions, protects erythrocytes from damage by detoxifying hydrogen peroxide and other sources of oxidative stress.
G6PD is encoded by the gene G6PD, which lies on the X-chromosome.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a housekeeping enzyme that catalyses the rate-limiting first step in the pentose phosphate pathway, where it produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), a critical cofactor in a variety of metabolic processes.
In the red blood cell (RBC), G6PD activity is especially important as the principal source of reducing power to regenerate the antioxidant glutathione.